[1]孙莉英,蔡强国,陈生永,等.东北典型黑土区小流域水土流失综合防治体系[J].水土保持研究,2012,19(03):36-41,57.
 SUN Li-ying,CAI Qiang-guo,CHEN Sheng-yong,et al.Integrated Governing System on Soil and Water Loss of Small Watersheds in a Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China[J].,2012,19(03):36-41,57.
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东北典型黑土区小流域水土流失综合防治体系()
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《水土保持研究》[ISSN:1005-3409/CN:61-1272/P]

卷:
19卷
期数:
2012年03期
页码:
36-41,57
栏目:
出版日期:
2099-01-01

文章信息/Info

Title:
Integrated Governing System on Soil and Water Loss of Small Watersheds in a Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China
作者:
孙莉英1 蔡强国1 陈生永2 和继军3
1. 中国科学院 地理科学与资源研究所, 陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100101;
2. 黑龙江水土保持科学研究所, 哈尔滨 150400;
3. 首都师范大学 初等教育学院, 北京 100080
Author(s):
SUN Li-ying1 CAI Qiang-guo1 CHEN Sheng-yong2 HE Ji-jun3
1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;
2. Heilongjiang Soil and Water Conservation Institute, Harbin 150400, China;
3. College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100080, China
关键词:
典型黑土区小流域水土流失综合防治体系
Keywords:
typical black soil regionsmall watershedsoil and water lossintegrated governing system
分类号:
S157.1
摘要:
针对东北黑土区土地资源不断流失和退化问题,总结东北黑土区小流域综合防治经验,对保护黑土资源和保障国家粮食生产安全是非常必要的。基于典型黑土区具有代表性的通双小流域近50 a水土流失治理实践和数据,探讨和分析小流域水土流失防治措施体系结构及其综合效益。在此基础上,系统分析了小流域从坡顶到沟道的三道防线立体防护体系的原理和效益:岗顶第一道防线减少溅蚀,削弱并拦截上坡来水来沙,涵养水源,改善土壤质量;坡耕地第二道防线截短坡长,减缓径流流速和侵蚀动能;坡底第三道防线主要采用植物跌水固沟保土,抑制侵蚀发展,恢复土地资源。该三道防线是适合典型漫川漫岗水力侵蚀区水土保持综合治理的模式体系。通过水土流失治理,通双小流域森林覆盖度显著增加,生态环境得到有效改善,小流域由强侵蚀区改善为微侵蚀区,侵蚀模数由6600 t/(km2·a)降低为300 t/(km2·a),且土壤质量得到明显改善,粮食产量由1979年的1200 kg/hm2增加至1995年的3 465 kg/hm2,年人均收入由1985年的1 100元上升至2005年的2700元。最后对黑土区和黄土区典型小流域综合治理模式进行了对比分析,为典型黑土漫川漫岗水力侵蚀区小流域水土流失综合防治和流域可持续发展提供借鉴和样板。
Abstract:
The black soil region of northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources had led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in northeast China, was selected as the study area. Based on the nearly 50 years’ experience in soil and water loss control, the structures and benefits of integrated soil and water control system were investigated. The ‘three defense lines’ tridimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to the gully can effectively control slope erosion and gully erosion. The ‘first line’ was allocated on the top hill, which can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. ‘The second line’ on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion kinetic energy. ‘The third line’ in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ‘three defense lines’ system is feasible for the soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the ’three defense lines’ in Tongshuang small watershed, there are effective improvements in ecological environment. The erosion modulus in Tongshuang small watershed decreased from 6 600 t/ (km2·a) to 300 t/ (km2·a). The grain yield increased from 1 200 kg/hm2 in 1979 to 3 465 kg/hm2 in 1995 due to the improvement of soil property, and the annual per capita income increased from 1 100 Yuan in 1985 to 2 077 Yuan in 2005. Moreover, the soil and water loss governing system of small watersheds in the typical black soil region was compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in typical rolling hilly areas of black soil region in northeast China.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2011-10-20;改回日期:2012-1-5。
基金项目:国家自然科学基金委员会青年科学基金项目(41001165,40901133,30901163)
作者简介:孙莉英(1978- ),女,河北灵寿人,助理研究员,主要研究方向为水土流失与控制。E-mail:sunliying@igsnrr.ac.cn
通讯作者:蔡强国(1946- ),男,湖北武汉人,研究员,主要研究方向为水土流失与控制。E-mail:caiqg@igsnrr.ac.cn
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01