[1]闫映宇.塔里木灌区膜下滴灌的棉花需水量及节水效益[J].水土保持研究,2016,23(01):123-127.
 YAN Yingyu.Cotton Water Requirements and Water Saving Benefit Under Mulched Drip Irrigation in Tarim Irrigated Area[J].,2016,23(01):123-127.
点击复制

塔里木灌区膜下滴灌的棉花需水量及节水效益()
分享到:

《水土保持研究》[ISSN:1005-3409/CN:61-1272/P]

卷:
23卷
期数:
2016年01期
页码:
123-127
栏目:
出版日期:
2016-02-28

文章信息/Info

Title:
Cotton Water Requirements and Water Saving Benefit Under Mulched Drip Irrigation in Tarim Irrigated Area
作者:
闫映宇
新疆维吾尔自治区水土保持生态环境监测总站, 乌鲁木齐 830000
Author(s):
YAN Yingyu
General Station of Soil and Water Conversation and Ecoenvironmental Monitoring of Xinjiang, Urumqi 830000, China
关键词:
棉花需水量棉花耗水量节水效益膜下滴灌
Keywords:
cotton water requirementscotton water consumptionwater saving Benefitdrip irrigation under mulching
分类号:
S562;S274.3
摘要:
为了确定适宜的灌溉制度,2008年通过田间灌溉试验,采用水量平衡法研究了塔里木灌区膜下滴灌棉花需水和耗水规律。以田间试验数据为基础,拟合了棉花的水分生产函数模型,分析评价了膜下滴灌棉花的节水效益。结果表明:塔里木灌区膜下滴灌棉花需水量为543 mm,其中苗期252 mm,蕾期186 mm,花铃期316 mm,吐絮期139 mm。随滴灌量减小,耗水量减小。滴灌量影响棉花各生育阶段的耗水量及产量,并不影响耗水比例。相应于灌溉水利用效率最高点的滴灌量要低于产量最高点的,因此节水与增产产生矛盾,仅从节水角度考虑,滴灌量为3 091 m3/hm2时,可以达到最大灌溉水利用效率,要获得最大产量,滴灌量应满足3 464 m3/hm2。与漫灌相比,膜下滴灌节水增产效益明显。在同一灌溉量下,膜下滴灌增产30.2%,灌溉水利用效率提高30.2%,在同一产量水平下,节水29.3%,灌溉水利用效率提高41.5%。
Abstract:
The primary purpose of this research was to give suitable irrigation program according to the growth period and water requirement. A cotton field experiment with mulched drip irrigation was conducted in Tarim Irrigated Area of Xinjiang in 2008. Water balance method was adopted to investigate the water requirement and water consumption pattern of cotton under mulched drip irrigation in Tarim Irrigated Area. Statistical analysis of experimental data of irrigation indicates that the relationship between yield of cotton and irrigation presents a quadratic parabola. We fit the model of cotton water production on the basis of field experimental data of cotton. And the analysis on water saving benefit of cotton under mulched drip irrigation was carried out. Results indicate that water requirements for the irrigated cotton are 543 mm in Tarim Irrigated Area; the water requirement at the seedling stage is 252 mm, it is 186 mm at budding stage, it is 316 mm at bolling stage and it is 139 mm at wadding stage: the irrigation amount determines the spatial distribution of soil moisture and water consumption during cotton life cycle. However, water consumption at different growth stages was inconsistent with irrigation. Quantitatively, the water consumed by cotton decreases upon the increase of irrigation amount. From the perspective of water saving, the maximal water use efficiency can reach to 3 091 m3/hm2. But the highest cotton yield demands 3 464 m3/hm2 irrigation water. In summary, compared to the conventional drip irrigation, a number of benefits in water saving and yield increase were observed when using plastic mulch. At the same amount of irrigation, the cotton yield with plastic mulch was 30.2% higher than conventional practices, and the efficiency of water utilization increased by 30.2%. While at the same yield level, 29.3% of water was saved by using plastic mulch, and the efficiency increased by 41.5%.

参考文献/References:

[1] 李毅,王文焰,王全九,等.温度势梯度下土壤水平一维水盐运动特征的试验研究[J].农业工程学报,2002,18(6):4-8.
[2] 王新平,李新荣,康尔泗.干旱沙区滴灌条件下水盐运移过程试验研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2002,20(3):44-48.
[3] 王全九,王文焰,汪志荣,等.盐碱地膜下滴灌技术参数的确定[J].农业工程学报,2001,17(2):47-50.
[4] 吕殿青,王全九,王文焰,等.膜下滴灌水盐运移影响因素研究[J].土壤学报,2002,39(6):794-801.
[5] 张琼,李光永,柴付军.棉花膜下滴灌条件下灌水频率对土壤水盐分布和棉花生长的影响[J].水利学报,2004,35(9):123-126.
[6] 李明思,康绍忠,孙海燕.点源滴灌滴头流量与湿润体关系研究[J].农业工程学报,2006,22(4):32-35.
[7] 万素梅,胡守林,翟云龙.膜下滴灌棉花土壤水分动态变化研究[J].水土保持研究,2007,14(1):90-91.
[8] 闫映宇,林新慧.灌溉方式对土壤水分运动参数的影响[J].水土保持研究,2011,18(4):160-165.
[9] 魏光辉,董新光,杨鹏年,等.棉花膜下滴灌土壤盐分运移规律分析[J].水土保持研究,2009,6(6):162-166.
[10] 弋鹏飞,虎胆·吐马尔白,吴争光,等.棉田膜下滴灌年限对土壤盐分累积的影响研究[J].水土保持研究,2010,17(5):118-122.
[11] 赵成义,闫映宇,李菊艳,等.塔里木灌区膜下滴灌的棉田土壤水盐分布特征研究[J].干旱区地理,2009,32(6):892-898.
[12] 孙林,罗毅.长期滴灌棉田土壤盐分演变趋势预测研究[J].水土保持研究,2013,20(1):186-192.
[13] 汪有科,吕雯,王德轩,等.节水增产灌溉模式研究[J].水土保持研究,2006,13(2):153-153.
[14] 蔡焕杰,邵光成.荒漠气候区膜下滴灌棉花需水量和灌溉制度的试验研究[J].水利学报,2002(11):119-123.
[15] 慕蔡芸,马富裕,郑旭荣,等.覆膜滴灌棉田蒸散量的模拟研究[J].农业工程学报,2005,21(4):25-29.
[16] 胡顺军,艾尼瓦尔·吾买尔,宋郁东,等.南疆棉田实际蒸散量的计算模式[J].干旱区研究,2001,18(1):40-42.
[17] 胡顺军,王举林,宋郁东.阿拉尔灌区棉田蒸散量计算模型[J].干旱区地理,2002,25(3):241-244.
[18] 刘新永,田长彦,马英杰,等.南疆膜下滴灌棉花耗水规律以及灌溉制度研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2006,24(1):108-112.
[19] Smith M. Report on the expert consultation on revision of FAO methodologies for crop water requirement[R]. Rome:FAO,1991.
[20] 赵聚宝,徐祝龄,钟兆站,等.中国北方旱地农田水分平衡[M].北京:中国农业出版社,2000.
[21] 胡顺军,周宏飞,宋郁东,等.渭干河灌区棉花高产节水优化灌溉制度试验研究[J].灌溉排水,2000,19(4):25-29.

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2015-03-05;改回日期:2015-03-16。
基金项目:973课题(2009CB421302);中国科学院创新项目(KZCX2-YW-127)
作者简介:闫映宇(1982-),男,甘肃通渭人,硕士,工程师,主要从事土壤生态与环境及水土保持相关研究。E-mail:yyy_2009@126.com
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01