[1]林廷武,高建恩,龙韶博,等.黄土丘陵沟壑区20年龄期梯田果园对不同标准极端降雨侵蚀调控作用[J].水土保持研究,2019,26(06):114-119,132.
 LIN Tingwu,GAO Jianen,LONG Shaobo,et al.Regulation of Different Standard Extreme Rainfall Erosion in Loess Hilly and Gully Region[J].,2019,26(06):114-119,132.
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黄土丘陵沟壑区20年龄期梯田果园对不同标准极端降雨侵蚀调控作用()
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《水土保持研究》[ISSN:1005-3409/CN:61-1272/P]

卷:
26卷
期数:
2019年06期
页码:
114-119,132
栏目:
出版日期:
2019-10-17

文章信息/Info

Title:
Regulation of Different Standard Extreme Rainfall Erosion in Loess Hilly and Gully Region
作者:
林廷武1 高建恩12 龙韶博1 窦少辉1 张昊晨1 李兴华3
1. 西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;
2. 中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所水利部 水土保持生态工程技术研究中心, 陕西 杨陵 712100;
3. 西北农林科技大学 水利与建筑工程学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100
Author(s):
LIN Tingwu1 GAO Jianen12 LONG Shaobo1 DOU Shaohui1 ZHANG Haochen1 LI Xinghua3
1. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;
2. Reaserch Center on Soil & Water Conservation of Ministry of Water Resources, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi, China;
3. College of Water Resources and Architectural Eng, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
关键词:
梯田果园侵蚀调控因子极端降雨野外人工模拟降雨
Keywords:
orchardserosion control factorsextreme rainfallsimulatedrainfall in the field
分类号:
S157.4
摘要:
针对黄土丘陵沟壑区极端暴雨频发,严重威胁梯田果园安全生产,而梯田果园对不同标准的极端暴雨侵蚀调控研究薄弱这一科学问题,在延安方塔20年龄期的梯田果园上进行野外模拟降雨试验,对果树、坡面植被、坡面枯落物3种调控因子在降雨强度由百年一遇增大到万年一遇时的侵蚀调控效果开展研究。结果表明:(1)相较于无调控措施,枯落物的减水率由44.11%增大到52.55%,坡面植被的减水率由22.81%增大到26.98%,而果树对产流的消减作用存在阈值,其对产流的消减量为4.49~5.81 L/m2。(2)相较于无调控措施,果树、坡面植被和枯落物对侵蚀产沙的消减量都随雨强增大而增大,但坡面植被的减沙率随暴雨标准提升而减小,果树的减沙率随暴雨标准提升呈正相关,当降雨标准超过千年一遇时,果树对产沙调控效果超过坡面植被,枯落物在减少侵蚀产沙中一直处于主导地位,其减沙率在60%以上。(3)梯田果园在3个调控因子综合作用下,减水减沙效益超过80%,遭受万年一遇暴雨时,次降雨侵蚀模数仅为93.75 t/km2,低于容许土壤侵蚀量,说明随梯田果园生产年限增加安全标准提高。本研究能为黄土丘陵沟壑区数百万亩梯田果园梯安全生产提供科技支撑。
Abstract:
In view of the frequent occurrence of extreme rainstorms in the Loess Hilly and gully region, which seriously threatens the safety of terraced orchards, the research on the regulation and control of extreme rainstorm erosion with different standards weak. In this study, field simulated rainfall experiments were carried out on 20-year-old terraced orchards in Fangta, Yan’an. The effects of three control factors, fruit trees, slope vegetation and slope litter, on erosion control were studied rainfall intensity increas from once in a hundred years to once in ten thousand years. The results show that:(1) with no control measures, the water reduction rate of litter increased from 44.11% to 52.55%, the water reduction rate of vegetation on slope increased from 22.81% to 26.98%, and the effect of fruit trees on runoff reduction had threshold value, which was between 4.49 to 5.81 L/m2; (2) comparing with no control measures, the reduction of erosion and sediment yield by fruit trees, slope vegetation and litter increased with the increase of rainfall intensity. However, the sediment reduction rate of slope vegetation decreases with the increase of rainstorm standard, and the sediment reduction rate of fruit trees is positively correlated with the increase of rainstorm standard. When the rainfall standard exceeded once in a thousand years, the regulation effect of fruit trees on sediment production exceeded that of slope vegetation. Litter has always been dominant in reducing erosion and sediment yield, and its sediment reduction rate is over 60%. (3) the synthetical effect of three regulating factors, benefits of water and sediment reduction exceed 80%. The erosion modulus of terraced orchards only 93.75 t/km2 in case of in ten thousand years, which lower than the allowable soil erosion amount that the safety standard of terraced orchards with the increase of the production life of terraced orchards. This study can provide scientific and technological support for the safety production of millionsof terraced orchard terraces in the and gully region.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2019-05-12;改回日期:2019-06-13。
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0504703);国家自然科学基金(41877078,41371276);陕西省自然科学基础研究计划(2016ZDJC-20);中国科学院重要方向项目"水土保持工程关键技术研发与集成示范"(A315021615)
作者简介:林廷武(1994-),男,湖北十堰人,硕士,研究方向为土壤侵蚀研究。E-mail:531561526@qq.com
通讯作者:高建恩(1962-),男,山西运城人,博士,研究员,研究方向为水土资源高效利用。E-mail:gaojianen@126.com
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01