[1]白先发,高建恩,贾立志,等.极端暴雨条件下黄土区典型梯田防蚀效果研究[J].水土保持研究,2015,22(03):10-15.
 BAI Xianfa,GAO Jianen,JIA Lizhi,et al.Preliminary Study of Effects of Different Terraces on Erosion Control in Loess Plateau[J].,2015,22(03):10-15.
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极端暴雨条件下黄土区典型梯田防蚀效果研究()
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《水土保持研究》[ISSN:1005-3409/CN:61-1272/P]

卷:
22卷
期数:
2015年03期
页码:
10-15
栏目:
出版日期:
2015-06-28

文章信息/Info

Title:
Preliminary Study of Effects of Different Terraces on Erosion Control in Loess Plateau
作者:
白先发13 高建恩1234 贾立志13 张梦杰2 马润年5 张英英5
1. 中国科学院 教育部 水土保持与生态环境研究中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100;
2. 西北农林科技大学 资源与环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100;
3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
4. 西北农林科技大学 水利与建筑工程学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100
Author(s):
BAI Xianfa13 GAO Jian’en1234 JIA Lizhi13 ZHANG Mengjie2 MA Runnian5 ZHANG Yingying5
1. Research Center of Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Education, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;
2. College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;
3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
4. College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
关键词:
水沙调控土壤侵蚀梯田暴雨径流黄土高原
Keywords:
water and sediment regulation measuressoil erosionterracesrainstorm runoffLoess Plateau
分类号:
S157.1
摘要:
2013年黄土高原延安地区发生的极端暴雨导致水土保持工程损毁严重,因此急需研究不同类型梯田抗御暴雨侵蚀防蚀效果。选取安塞县同一地区典型梯田—大棚、梯田—大田和梯田—水窖—苹果3种具有不同水沙调控措施梯田,根据暴雨前后野外监测资料,分析比较了3种梯田抗御暴雨侵蚀灾害的能力。结果表明:带有水沙调控措施的梯田防蚀效果明显好于无水沙调控措施的梯田。梯田—水窖—苹果侵蚀最轻,各阶梯田侵蚀等级均在中度侵蚀以下,平均土壤侵蚀模数仅为2 177 t/km2;梯田—大棚由于在大棚基部修建有排水渠道其侵蚀程度次之,平均土壤侵蚀模数为18 269 t/km2,但棚面集流效率高使得各阶梯田土壤侵蚀等级都在极强度侵蚀以上;梯田—大田侵蚀最严重,平均土壤侵蚀模数为23 921 t/km2,由梯田顶部到底部土壤侵蚀逐渐加重,最下部3阶梯田累积侵蚀量占总侵蚀量的85.02%。黄土丘陵沟壑区发展高效农业需要在梯田上因地制宜修建水沙调控措施,以调节水沙时空分布,保障农业生产。
Abstract:
In order to understand the serious damage of soil and water conservation projects caused by heavy rain in Loess Plateau in 2013, it is urgent to study the effects of different water and sediment regulation measures on soil erosion control. Based on the field monitoring and collected rainfall data, this paper chose three kinds of terraces with different water and sediment regulation measures and compared their ability to resist the heavy rain disaster. The results showed that terraces with water and sediment regulation measures presented the better erosion controlling effect than those without water and sediment regulation measures significantly. Cellar-apple-terraces showed the lightest erosion intensity, with the degrees of all levels of terraces being middle erosion and average soil erosion modulus being 2 177 t/km2. Greenhouses-terrace showed middle erosion intensity and its average soil erosion modulus was 18 269 t/km2 due to drainage channels constructed on the base of greenhouses, whereas the high efficiency of rainwater collection on the surface of greenhouse made the average soil erosion modulus of all levels of terraces reach to 18 269 t/km2. The erosion of field-terrace was the most serious, and the average soil erosion modulus of the field-terrace was 23 921 t/km2. There was an increasing tendency of soil erosion from the up to the down of field-terrace, and the erosion rate of the lowermost three levels of field-terrace accounted for 85.02% of total erosion rate. There was the increasing requirement of constructing water and sediment regulation measures based on practical situation to develop high efficient agriculture, control the spatiotemporal distribution of water and sediment, and ensure agricultural production.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2014-05-07;改回日期:2014-09-03。
基金项目:国家“十二五”科技支撑计划“黄土丘陵沟壑区水土保持与高效农业关键技术集成示范”(2011BAD31B05);陕西省科技统筹创新工程计划“治沟造地工程区坡面整治综合技术集成与示范”(2013KTDZ03-03-01);国家自然科学基金(41371276,51309194);中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所知识创新工程专项(水土保持工程)(A315021304)
作者简介:白先发(1989-),男,山东淄博人,在读硕士,研究方向为土壤侵蚀。E-mail:baixianfa@126.com
通讯作者:高建恩(1962-),男,山西运城人,博士,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事水土资源高效利用研究。E-mail:gaojianen@126.com
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01